The 33-year-old Kohli, who took over as full-time Test captain in early 2015 when MS Dhoni had announced retirement in Australia, steps down as India's most successful captain in the format, with 40 wins in 68 Tests.
He helped the side to a historic Test series win in Australia, and took them to the top of the ICC Test rankings. Under him, India also reached the final of the inaugural ICC World Test Championship.
The BCCI took to Twitter to thank Kohli for his contribution.
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"BCCI congratulates #TeamIndia captain @imVkohli for his admirable leadership qualities that took the Test team to unprecedented heights. He led India in 68 matches and has been the most successful captain with 40 wins," said BCCI in a tweet.
BCCI secretary Jay Shah also congratulated Kohli on a tremendous tenure as Team India captain
"Congratulations to @imVkohli on a tremendous tenure as #TeamIndia captain. Virat turned the team into a ruthless fit unit that performed admirably both in India and away. The Test wins in Australia & England have been special," Shah tweeted.
BCCI treasurer Arun Dhumal also termed Virat as a phenomenal leader.
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Congrats @imVkohli for a great tenure as captain. You have been a phenomenal leader and beyond doubt the most successful Indian captain be it home or overseas.I wish you great success in future and I'm sure you'll keep contributing with your top class batting for team India @bcci .
Kohli had earlier given up T20I captaincy after the 2021 T20 World Cup, and was succeeded as skipper in ODIs by Rohit Sharma.